Skin cancers appear due to the transformation of some cells in various layers of the skin into cancer by changing their characters. Sun rays and radiation are among its most common causes. Due to the sun exposure, it appears more commonly in the head and neck region than in other regions. In addition, genetic disorders, chronic scars and fair skin are the risks for skin cancer.
Basal cell cancer, squamous cell cancer, and malignant melanoma are the most common skin cancers. Basal cell cancer is the most benign one of these. It does not metastasize (spread) to the surrounding tissues and is easily treated surgically.
Squamous cell cancer, on the other hand, is an advanced type that is likely to metastasize to regional lymph nodes. Its treatment involves surgical removal of the tumor from appropriate borders, and surgical removal of the lymph nodes if necessary.
Malignant melanoma is the type that has the worst prognosis. However, if it is treated appropriately and consciously by individuals who are experts in this field, its treatment gives extremely successful results.
Treatment of skin cancer depends on the type of the skin, the stage of the cancer as well as its location in the body. If the cancerous area is small, its surgical removal can be easily performed under local anesthesia on an outpatient basis.
If the cancerous area is large, and if it has metastasized to the lymph nodes or any another part of the body, a large-scale surgical intervention may be required for the treatment of this skin cancer. In skin cancers, radiotherapy (radiation therapy) and chemotherapy (administration of anticancer drugs) are the possible treatment options in addition to surgical treatment.
In order to minimize the risk of skin cancer, it is necessary to avoid direct sunlight, and people with a great number of moles should be examined regularly.